Khilafah: An Alternate Solution to Democracy
And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a Khalifah (successive authority).”
(Holy Quran 2: 30)
After my last blog on the numerous flaws of democracy:
We are immediately asked what is the solution, if not democracy. Martial Law, Monarchy or Kingdomship?
We say the answer is Khilafah. Khilafah is the prescribed way of leadership in Islam by Allah through His divine wisdom.
In Islam the Khalifah is elected by not by casting votes and having separate parties and the party with the most seats winning. A group of people are selected based upon their knowledge and their leadership skill, as well as honesty and justice and one of them is selected to rule by the opinion of people, who then give their allegiance to him.
History of Khilafah
Khilafah in Islam has a very long history starting from the four famous rightly guided Khalifs Hazrat Abu Bakr, Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali (RA). Khilafah continued in various forms (good and bad) throughout the Islamic era until it ended with the Ottoman Empire (Khilafat Usmanniyyah) in 1922.
There was a struggle for revival of Khilafah through the Khilafat Movement in the 1920s by the Muslims of the subcontinent but it could not succeed. This showed the importance of Khilafah. It was a unifying platform for the Muslim Ummah. Once it finished Muslim Ummah further disintegrated and there was little cohesion left. It is said that Dirham & Dinar (Gold & Silver) coins (Sunnah money) were the only means of transaction until the Khilafah ended.
Khilafat Will Return
Reference in Holy Quran:
“Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority-Khilafah] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me. But whoever disbelieves after that – then those are the defiantly disobedient.”
(Holy Quran 24: 55)
Dr. Israr Ahmad Marhoom interprets here that supremacy of man (Democracy) is associating with Allah i.e. committing Shirk.
Reference in Ahadith:
In a long Sahih Hadith narrated by Imam Ahmad and Imam Abu Dawood RA, five periods of history have been told and predicted by the Holy Prophet (PBUH): Scholars explain this hadith in this way:
Appointment of the Ameerul-Mu’mineen or Khalifah (Commander-of-the-believers)
Muslim State should have a leader is a Far’d kafaai (communal obligation) of all the Muslims living in that state.
That person is appointed Khalifah whom the Muslims of the Islamic state consider most suitable for this responsibility and the majority of the people should accept him. The Khalifah comes into power through selection or nomination NOT election. Islam has not laid any specific method for the selection procedure.
Qualities of the Khalifah
However, it has laid down some principles: he should be a person better than others in Islamic knowledge, very pious, God-fearing and he should also know how to run an administration with lots of talent and intelligence.
He therefore should not be an ignorant about the affairs of the religion of Islâm and skills of administration.
He should be free of corruption and other major crimes. The Muslim leader should also be brave and intrepid which ensure his ability to stand up in the face of unusual happenings. Most preferably he should be elected by a group of such people who themselves are chosen or elected by the public.
Once a Khalifah has been elected and approved by the advisory council directly and by the public indirectly, one has to accept him as the Khalifah of the Muslim state.
Selection of Khalifah
In a country like Pakistan this could be done by formation of a technocratic government by the judiciary or military. The members of the technocratic government should have all the qualities mentioned above.
This technocrat government would make necessary adjustments to the constitution and judiciary to make them according to the teachings of the Holy Quran & Sunnah as possible after consensus with scholars of different sects.
Finally a Khalifah is selected/nominated with all the qualities mentioned above preferably from the nominees of the technocratic caretaker government. NO ONE will volunteer himself for the Khilafah.
Likewise the best people who are best in their field & have administrative abilities are NOMINATED from top to the base root level or vice versa.
Obey/Disobey the Khalifah
So, as everyone has to accept this Khalifah as his leader, they have to obey the orders of the Khalifah.
The Quran says:
“Obey Allah and the messenger and those of you in authority.”
(Holy Quran 4:59)
Refusal to acknowledge a rightly elected Khalifah is paramount to treason and war. Islam has condemned a person who refuses to accept the leadership of a rightly elected Khalifah.
He rules over all the Muslims and has a council of advisor who help him with the governance. These include religious scholars and people of knowledge in all aspects. There are no different countries or nations but rather one nation under the banner of Islam. This is the way prescribed by Allah and therefore it is the best way we can live in this world.
Disobedience in him is paramount to disobedience in Allah. However if the Khalifah orders anything against the law of the Quran or the Sunnah, then not only disobedience is a must but he also must try to correct the Khalifah by pointing out the mistakes to him.
Check on Khalifah
It is the duty of Muslims in the state to keep a good check on the Khalifah and his council. They can’t just go on doing whatever they want to do while the Muslims of the state are ignorant of their activities. They have to set them straight if they go astray from any injunction of the Quran and Sunnah.
The Khalifah and his council are responsible for the state treasury or Bait-ul-Maal. It is a trust upon them and should distribute it whenever necessary among the poor and needy. They can’t just take from it whenever and however much they want.
A presidential form of government would be most suitable to run the affairs of the Khilafat.
The Khalifah and his council are responsible for framing laws for which the Quran and Sunnah have given no clear injunction. However ulema will also have to be counseled in this regard and any new law formed must be as close to the guidance given in the Quran and Sunnah as may be possible.
In the Muslim State, there cannot be two commanders-of-the believers at a time. The rule is that when a commander-of-the-believers has been appointed whoever disputes that by declaring himself another commander-of-the-believers should be put to sword.
However, the fact that there cannot be two commanders-of-the-believers at a time in the Muslim state does not mean there are not other subsidiary leaders. Other leaders, whose authority is derived from the authority of the Khalifah include ministers in charge of government on the lead of whom there can be a Minister who often acts as the deputy of the commander-of-the-believers.
The Khalifah will take advice from his cabinet (Shura). However he may exert veto powers with valid reasoning and in accordance with the Holy Quran and Sunnah
Other leaders include heads of cities and regions who are each called an Ameer (commander) or Waali (governor). The Chief Justice, head of the army, head of the border guards, head of land tax collectors, head of Zakat collectors, judge of a town or region are other people who possess power and authority in an Islamic State.
All other leaders, as stated, derive their authority from the commander-of-the-believers at the centre therefore they must be loyal to him after being loyal to Allah and His Messenger. Therefore, their appointment derives force from the Khalifah. It is pertinent to state here that those other leaders should also possess the likes of the qualities possessed by the Khalifah. In other words, they should also fit to be the Khalifah.
For instance, Umarâ (plural of Ameer) of cities and regions, are often directly appointed by the Khalifah or by his deputy who himself derives his own authority from the Khalifah. It is the Ameer of each region that ensures safety of lives and properties in their respective regions. They work in collaboration with other functionaries in the government to maintain law and order.
As another instance, judges to be appointed by the State must each possess the following qualities; they must be males, they must possess the requisite knowledge of the Shariah that will make them act in their capacity as judges; such requisite knowledge include the adequate knowledge of the Qur’ân and Sunnah and other sources from which the rulings are derived.
Thus there is no gainsaying the fact that Isalm ensures good governance. Ibn Taymiyyah said: ‘It must be known that taking care of the affairs of the people is among what is obligatory in the Deen; in fact the Deen and the world cannot be except through that, this is because the children of Adam cannot have the completion of their benefits except when they gather to take care of one another’s needs, and when they so gather they must have a leader…this is because Allâh makes commanding what is good and forbidding what is evil mandatory and that cannot be achieved except with power and authority.
This is why it is reported: ‘The Sultân (ruler) is Allâh’s shade on earth;’ it is also said: ‘Sixty years under an unjust ruler is better than a night without a ruler;’ that has been proved by practice. This is why some of the Salaf like Al-Fudayl bn Iyâd and Ahmad bin Hanbal , among others, used to say: ‘If I have a supplication that can be granted, I will make it for the ruler…’
Offences and their Punishments
Hudud (singular hadd, literal meaning “limit”, or “restriction”) is the word often used in Islamic literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. In the Islamic law usually refers to the class of punishments that are fixed for certain crimes that are considered to be Rights of Allah.
They include theft, fornication, consumption of alcohol, and apostasy. Also punishments in the Shariah are meant to serve as a deterrent. Criminals are not just punished for the fun of it. For instance, Allah said as regard when those murder that Qisas (legal retribution) is a means of life for everyone else:
“And there is for you in legal retribution [saving of] life, O you [people] of understanding, that you may become righteous.”
Enemies of Islam & Pakistan are Against Khilafah
This is a reality. This is why the only two systems have been allowed to run in Islamic countries including Pakistan are democracy and dictatorship (which includes Martial Law). Enemies of Islam know that once Khalifat is shown to the world then Islam & its political system of Khilafah may dominate the minds of people around the world.
This would lead to a downfall of the vested interests of the enemies of Islam including the Zionists.
Differences between Khalifat & Democracy
|Sovereignty||Belongs to People||Belongs to Allah alone|
|Majority Rule||Yes||Not necessary|
|Unity/Division||Creates division||Creates unity|
|Love/Hate||Creates hate||Creates love|
|Peace/Love||Brings violence, civil war, enmity||Brings Peace|
|Other evils of Election||Yes||No|
|Change||Through selective candidates||Change ourselves first|
|Deterrent from Crime||Almost None||Hudood Laws|
PLUS Democracy involves wastage of millions & millions of rupees/dollars or whatever currency for canvassing, advertisements etc, while Khilafah does not require much money e.g.
This money could have spent on the poor or other welfare schemes for the society e.g. hospitals, education etc
Eminent Scholars in Favor of Khilafah
Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar (Late)
Dr. Israr Ahmad Marhoom
Maulana Maududi Marhoom: At end of his life went in favor of Khilafah
Sheikh Imran Hosein
Abdullah Al Andalusi
Revolt Against Khalifah
Criteria for revolt against a ruling Khalifah are mentioned in detail in the following blog:
Future of Khilafah
I feel Khilafah will now only be established in the Muslim Ummah by Imam Mehdi/ Hazrat Isa (AS) after their coming and probably after the Malhama. This is due to the sheer strength of the forces which brought an end to the Khilafah (Gog and Magog). But this does not mean we should not be trying as it is the ONLY solution for betterment of Muslims.
And Allah knows best!